Researchers and patients look forward to the day when stem cells might be used to replace dying brain cells in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Scientists are currently able to make neurons and other brain cells from stem cells, but getting these neurons to properly function when transplanted to the host has proven to be more difficult. Now, researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) have found a way to stimulate stem cell-derived neurons to direct cognitive function after transplantation to an existing neural network. The study was published November 7 in the Journal of Neuroscience.
"We showed for the first time that embryonic stem cells that we've programmed to become neurons can integrate into existing brain circuits and fire patterns of electrical activity that are critical for consciousness and neural network activity," said Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study. Lipton is director of Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging, and Stem Cell Research Center and a clinical neurologist.
The trick turned out to be light. Lipton and his team—including Juan Piña-Crespo, Ph.D., Maria Talantova, Ph.D., and other colleagues at Sanford-Burnham and Stanford University—transplanted human stem cell-derived neurons into a rodent hippocampus, the brain's information-processing center. Then they specifically activated the transplanted neurons with optogenetic stimulation, a relatively new technique that combines light and genetics to precisely control cellular behavior in living tissues or animals.
To determine if the newly transplanted, light-stimulated human neurons were actually working, Lipton and his team measured high-frequency oscillations in existing neurons at a distance from the transplanted ones. They found that the transplanted neurons triggered the existing neurons to fire high-frequency oscillations. Faster neuronal oscillations are usually better—they're associated with enhanced performance in sensory-motor and cognitive tasks.
To sum it up, the transplanted human neurons not only conducted electrical impulses, they also roused neighboring neuronal networks into firing—at roughly the same rate they would in a normal, functioning hippocampus.
The therapeutic outlook for this technology looks promising. "Based on these results, we might be able to restore brain activity—and thus restore motor and cognitive function—by transplanting easily manipulated neuronal cells derived from embryonic stem cells," Lipton said.
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute: http://www.burnham-inst.org
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
A species of clownfish has been shown to grow bigger in warmer conditions, suggesting that some animals may benefit from global warming
The first ever trial of reprogrammed stem cells is put on hold while scientists investigate whether the procedure caused a potentially cancerous mutation
Researchers were amazed to see a wild polar bear stay under the water for so long while stalking its next meal
Study is one of first to track where in the ocean predators pick up different chemicals
When amnesia strikes, people can forget everything about their life, including their name. But what causes memory loss? And what happens to people who lose themselves for an hour, a few months – or even for ever?
Tooth unearthed by 20-year-old volunteer hailed as major discovery by paleoanthropologist overseeing dig at Arago cave near Tautavel
Autistic children are just as good at reading emotions from the body as those without – they just don't like the closeness that interpreting emotions from faces requires
Individual cells can be made to act like tiny lasers, offering a more accurate way to tag and monitor tumour cells, for example
If you want to know the secret behind the success of Tyrannosaurus rex and its meat-eating dinosaur cousins, look no further than their teeth.
A recent article argued that sexuality is down to choice, not genetics. But the scientific evidence says otherwise, and points to a strong biological origin