Chemists at New York University have discovered a family of anti-freeze molecules that prevent ice formation when water temperatures drop below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Their findings, which are reported in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), may lead to new methods for improving food storage and industrial products.
"The growth and presence of ice can be damaging to everything from our vehicles to food to human tissue, so learning how to control this process would be remarkably beneficial," says co-author Kent Kirshenbaum, an associate professor in NYU's Department of Chemistry. "Our findings reveal how molecules ward off the freezing process and give new insights into how we might apply these principles elsewhere."
A common misperception is that water necessarily freezes when temperatures reach 32 degrees Fahrenheit or zero degrees Celsius. Not so, scientists point out.
"Nature has its own anti-freeze molecules," explains co-author Michael Ward, chair of NYU's Department of Chemistry. "We simply don't have the details on how they work."
To explore this topic, the researchers created artificial, simplified versions of protein molecules that, in nature, inhibit or delay freezing. These molecules were placed in microscopic droplets of water, and ice formation was monitored by video microscopy and X-ray analysis. The experiments allowed the researchers to determine which critical chemical features were required to stymie ice crystallization.
The experimental results showed that there are two ways the molecules adopt anti-freeze behavior. One, they work to reduce the temperature at which ice begins to form, and, two, once ice does begin to form, they interact in ways that slow down its accumulation.
The researchers then investigated the molecules' structural features that might explain these capabilities. Their observations showed molecules act as "ice crystallization regulators." Ice has a crystal structure, and the anti-freeze molecules may associate with these crystal surfaces in ways that inhibit the growth of these crystals, thus delaying or halting the freezing process.
New York University: http://www.nyu.edu
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Written 20 years ago, the first algorithm to tap into the ultra-fast potential of quantum computing has been run on a real machine at long last
Shirley Corriher, author of Cookwise: The Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking, has tips on taking the bitter bite out of coffee, and holding onto cabbage's red hue while it's in the pan.
Data originally taken for another reason weaken the case for "dark photons"
Kip Thorne looks into the black hole he helped create and thinks, “Why, of course. That's what it would do.” This particular black hole is a simulation of unprecedented accuracy. It appears to spin at nearly the speed of light, dragging bits of the universe along with it. (That's gravity for you; relativity is superweird.) In theory it was once a star, but instead of fading or exploding, it collapsed like a failed soufflé into a tiny point of inescapable singularity. A glowing ring orbiting the spheroidal maelstrom seems to curve over the top and below the bottom simultaneously.
Apeel Sciences hopes its products, which use natural methods to fend off pests and oxidization, can markedly reduce the amount of produce wasted because of spoilage.
Francis Halzen’s amazing experiment heralds the beginning of a new era in astronomy
First direct detection of dark matter, thought to make up most of the matter in the universe, would be a historic breakthrough
Geologists, climate scientists, ecologists and a lawyer gather in Berlin for talks on whether to rename age of human lifeHumanitys terrifying impact on Earth justifies new Anthropocene epoch
This month in Italy, three judges have a chance to undo the Kafkaesque nightmare that has ensnared some of the country’s top scientists for almost five years. So far it looks doubtful they will. In 2012, seven scientists and engineers were convicted of manslaughter for things they said and did not say in the days
Turkey's eternal fires have remained burning for thousands of years but now the source of the methane that fuels them has been found