If you are among the 50 percent of Americans who suffer from insomnia, then you have probably tried everything – from warm milk to melatonin pills or prescription medications to induce sleep – with varying degrees of success and side effects. But what if sleep could be achieved not by a substance, but through 'balancing' brain activity?
Researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have conducted a pilot clinical study to determine whether a non-invasive approach, that uses musical tones to balance brain activity, can 'reset' the brain and effectively reduce insomnia.
The study, was published online in October, advance of print, in the journal Brain and Behavior. It was funded by a $26,696 grant from Brain State Technologies, LLC, Scottsdale, Ariz., the company that owns the technology used in the study.
Charles H. Tegeler, M.D., professor of neurology at Wake Forest Baptist and principal investigator of the study explained how the technology works. "The human brain is made up of the left and right hemispheres that work together as parallel processors. When a person undergoes trauma or a major stressor, their autonomic survival responses kick in and the brain can become unbalanced. If those imbalances persist, symptoms such as insomnia can result. Our study looked at a new technology that is intended to facilitate greater balance and harmony in brain frequencies, which may result in improved symptoms."
The new technology is called HIRREM, high-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring or, as it's commercially known, Brainwave Optimization™. The non-invasive procedure uses a system that is designed to reflect the brain's frequencies back to itself using musical tones. Resonance between the musical tones and the electrical energy in a person's brain can bring balance to the two hemispheres of the brain.
Study results were based on a change in the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) which measures the severity of sleep disruption using a zero-to-28 point scale; the median ISI for study participants was between 18.7 and 18.9, which is considered moderate-to-severe insomnia.
Researchers found that the HIRREM group had a 10.3 point drop in ISI, improved insomnia symptoms and, clinically moved into a category of 'no insomnia' or 'sub-threshold insomnia'. The control subjects, who continued their existing insomnia treatment without HIRREM, showed no change in ISI. However, when the crossover control group received HIRREM therapy, the results were indistinguishable from those of the original HIRREM group.
This unblinded, wait-list control, crossover study enrolled 20 participants (14 women and 6 men). Ten people were randomized to receive HIRREM sessions, plus usual care; the remaining 10 were assigned to the wait-list control group. An initial assessment determined the symmetry, or balance, in amplitude and frequencies between the brain hemispheres and data collection included a subject's ISI and other measures including blood pressure and neurocognitive function tests.
Study participants randomized to HIRREM underwent eight to 12 sessions that each lasted between 60-90 minutes. The sessions involved reclining in a zero gravity chair and placing sensors over numerous locations on both sides of the scalp. A musical tone, determined by a mathematic algorithm and based on the dominant frequency in a floating middle range of the participant's EEG frequencies, was played back to the participant through ear buds. Resonance between musical tones and oscillating brain circuits is designed to allow the brain to auto-calibrate, moving towards better balance, with associated improvement in symptoms.
The limitations of the study include the small number of study participants and the absence of a sham-placebo control group which prevented blinding. This means it is possible that the changes observed with HIRREM, could be due to a placebo effect. In addition, because HIRREM therapy involves social interaction and relaxation, there may be other non-specific mechanisms for improvement, in addition to the tonal mirroring. Although the researchers believe that the degree of improvement and length of time it persisted (for four weeks after the last session) suggests real change through HIRREM, Tegeler is planning a larger clinical trial using a sham placebo, to confirm the HIRREM effect and further explore the technology.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center: http://www.wfubmc.edu
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
The largest specimen among Earth's first flying vertebrates boasted a 10-metre wingspan, dwarfing modern-day giants Continue reading...
How can creatures as different in body and mind as present-day humans and their extinct Neanderthal cousins be 99.84 percent identical genetically?
A mile deep expedition using robots has discovered three ships that sank off the coast of Galveston centuries ago. Archeologists are still unsure of why the vessels sunk.
Scientists based their technique on the one used to create the sheep Dolly years ago. These cells might one day be useful in treating all sorts of diseases.
It turns out the first chili peppers were grown by humans in eastern Mexico. And it's not the same region where beans and corn were first grown, according to new ways of evaluating evidence.
A team of international scientists have found four species of insects with reversed sex organs. The females' anatomy may have to do with their need for nutrients that only males produce.
For all but the shyest of wallflowers, moving to music is a natural human response. But what is it about a catchy tune that makes us groove? Scientists think they've figured out at least part of the recipe: just the right mix of regular rhythms and unexpected beats.
Artists' brains are structurally different to non-artists in areas relating to fine motor movements and visual imagery, a study finds.
Information about who suspects call and when is helping police work out who is linked to which crimes and even their place in the criminal hierarchy
The lead scientist behind a revolutionary method to turn adult cells into stem cells has been found guilty of misconduct, but insists the mistakes were unintentional