If you are among the 50 percent of Americans who suffer from insomnia, then you have probably tried everything – from warm milk to melatonin pills or prescription medications to induce sleep – with varying degrees of success and side effects. But what if sleep could be achieved not by a substance, but through 'balancing' brain activity?
Researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have conducted a pilot clinical study to determine whether a non-invasive approach, that uses musical tones to balance brain activity, can 'reset' the brain and effectively reduce insomnia.
The study, was published online in October, advance of print, in the journal Brain and Behavior. It was funded by a $26,696 grant from Brain State Technologies, LLC, Scottsdale, Ariz., the company that owns the technology used in the study.
Charles H. Tegeler, M.D., professor of neurology at Wake Forest Baptist and principal investigator of the study explained how the technology works. "The human brain is made up of the left and right hemispheres that work together as parallel processors. When a person undergoes trauma or a major stressor, their autonomic survival responses kick in and the brain can become unbalanced. If those imbalances persist, symptoms such as insomnia can result. Our study looked at a new technology that is intended to facilitate greater balance and harmony in brain frequencies, which may result in improved symptoms."
The new technology is called HIRREM, high-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring or, as it's commercially known, Brainwave Optimization™. The non-invasive procedure uses a system that is designed to reflect the brain's frequencies back to itself using musical tones. Resonance between the musical tones and the electrical energy in a person's brain can bring balance to the two hemispheres of the brain.
Study results were based on a change in the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) which measures the severity of sleep disruption using a zero-to-28 point scale; the median ISI for study participants was between 18.7 and 18.9, which is considered moderate-to-severe insomnia.
Researchers found that the HIRREM group had a 10.3 point drop in ISI, improved insomnia symptoms and, clinically moved into a category of 'no insomnia' or 'sub-threshold insomnia'. The control subjects, who continued their existing insomnia treatment without HIRREM, showed no change in ISI. However, when the crossover control group received HIRREM therapy, the results were indistinguishable from those of the original HIRREM group.
This unblinded, wait-list control, crossover study enrolled 20 participants (14 women and 6 men). Ten people were randomized to receive HIRREM sessions, plus usual care; the remaining 10 were assigned to the wait-list control group. An initial assessment determined the symmetry, or balance, in amplitude and frequencies between the brain hemispheres and data collection included a subject's ISI and other measures including blood pressure and neurocognitive function tests.
Study participants randomized to HIRREM underwent eight to 12 sessions that each lasted between 60-90 minutes. The sessions involved reclining in a zero gravity chair and placing sensors over numerous locations on both sides of the scalp. A musical tone, determined by a mathematic algorithm and based on the dominant frequency in a floating middle range of the participant's EEG frequencies, was played back to the participant through ear buds. Resonance between musical tones and oscillating brain circuits is designed to allow the brain to auto-calibrate, moving towards better balance, with associated improvement in symptoms.
The limitations of the study include the small number of study participants and the absence of a sham-placebo control group which prevented blinding. This means it is possible that the changes observed with HIRREM, could be due to a placebo effect. In addition, because HIRREM therapy involves social interaction and relaxation, there may be other non-specific mechanisms for improvement, in addition to the tonal mirroring. Although the researchers believe that the degree of improvement and length of time it persisted (for four weeks after the last session) suggests real change through HIRREM, Tegeler is planning a larger clinical trial using a sham placebo, to confirm the HIRREM effect and further explore the technology.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center: http://www.wfubmc.edu
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Pigs ‘edited’ with a warthog gene to resist African swine fever could help spawn GM animal farms in the UK
Mouse House to make naturalist biopic, six years after box-office failure of Creation, starring Paul Bettany
International team spends 10 years making inroads into treatment of bacterium which kills up to half of those it infects
You may not know it, but you probably have some Neanderthal in you. For people around the world, except sub-Saharan Africans, about 1 to 3 percent of their DNA comes from Neanderthals, our close cousins who disappeared roughly 39,000 years ago.
Research at Yale plotted what happened in the brains of two scientists as they held a conversation
From medicines to jet fuel, we have so many reasons to celebrate the microbes we live with every day
Genome sequencing indicates Kennewick Man is Native American, reopening the bitter battle over whether he should be reburied or studied
In the article on the discovery of dinosaurs (They’re back, Review, 6 June) you state: “In Sussex, a local doctor uncovered fragmentary remains of what appeared to be two more species of colossal extinct land reptiles.” You grossly underplay the contribution of Lewes-born Gideon Mantell, geologist and palaeontologist, author and diarist, friend to princes and international scholars as well as local doctor. Mantell not only discovered (aided by his wife) the first remains of the iguanodon in 1824 but named it – as it resembled the tooth of an iguana. This was the first known land dinosaur, Mary Anning having identified the first sea-living dinosaur.Mantell went on to put together more pieces of the jigsaw with extra fossil discoveries. In contrast to Richard Owen, whose models form the basis for the Crystal Palace dinosaurs, Mantell stated correctly that iguanodon would have walked on their back legs, using their forearms to fight or gather food. He did, however, attribute the thumb spike to a nose horn though later corrected this assumption. The Natural History Museum has a display on Gideon and his wife Mary’s contribution as well as the large “Mantell-piece” of Iguanodon fossils that he had on show in his museum in Brighton. He sold it, along with many more priceless items, to the British Museum in 1838. Gideon Mantell’s reputation deserves better than your throwaway remark. Debby MatthewsLewes, East Sussex Continue reading...
Unique triangular hairs help keep Saharan silver ants cool at 70°C by manipulating the physics of light
Most animals wouldn't confront a fearsome predator like a lion. But through sophisticated group work, hyenas launch successful raids