A team of IRCM researchers, led by Dr. Frédéric Charron, recently uncovered a nerve cell's internal clock, used during embryonic development. The discovery was made in collaboration with Dr. Alyson Fournier's laboratory at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Published today in the prestigious scientific journal Neuron, this breakthrough could lead to the development of new tools to repair and regenerate nerve cells following injuries to the central nervous system.
Researchers in Dr. Charron's laboratory study neurons, which are the nerve cells that make up the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). They want to better understand how neurons navigate through the developing embryo to arrive at their correct destination.
"To properly form neural circuits, developing axons (long extensions of neurons that form nerves) follow external signals to reach the right targets," says Dr. Frédéric Charron, Director of the Molecular Biology of Neural Development research unit at the IRCM. "We discovered that nerve cells also have an internal clock, which changes their response to external signals as they develop over time."
For this research project, IRCM scientists focused on the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein, which gives cells important information for the embryo to develop properly and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system.
"It is known that axons follow the Shh signal during their development," explains Dr. Patricia Yam, research associate in Dr. Charron's laboratory and first author of the study. "However, axons change their behaviour once they reach this protein, and this has been a mystery for the scientific community. We found that a nerve cell's internal clock switches its response to external signals when it reaches the Shh protein, at which time it becomes repelled by the Shh signal rather than following it."
"Our findings therefore showed that more than one system is involved in directing axon pathfinding during development," adds Dr. Yam. "Not only do nerve cells respond to external signals, but they also have an internal control system. This discovery is important because it offers new possibilities for developing techniques to regenerate and repair damaged nerve cells. Along with trying to modify external factors, we can now also consider modifying elements inside a cell in order to change its behaviour."
Injuries to the central nervous system affect thousands of Canadians every year, and can lead to lifelong disabilities. Most often caused by an accident, stroke or disease, these injuries are very difficult to repair. New tools are therefore required to repair damage to the central nervous system, including techniques that could potentially regenerate nerve cells.
"The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is delighted to support research aimed at improving the lives of individuals with damage to the brain or spinal cord," says Dr. Anthony Phillips, Scientific Director of CIHR's Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction. ''Nerve cell repair and regeneration remains an important health challenge, and we believe that Dr. Charron's research findings will contribute to the solution."
Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal: http://www.ircm.qc.ca
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Ah, motherhood. I don’t know anything about it, but I heard there’s a lot of, like, sacrifice and stuff. Not only do you have to bring the brat into the world, but then you have to feed it for at least 18 years or you get in big trouble. That’s a lot of pressure.
It’s three in the morning in South Africa, in the middle of winter. Temperatures have dropped to just …
A jellyfish tagging study reveals the creatures' ability to swim against the current when forming their submarine swarms, say researchers.
Size isn't everything. When many male mice mate with the same females, their descendants evolve testes that can produce more sperm
Along the seashore, harmful blooms caused by an organism called Sea Sparkle choke ecosystems but look positively enchanting
The opposable thumb you use to hold a pencil was long thought to be a defining aspect of humans. But an analysis of finger bones suggests stone tool use by pre-humans — perhaps 3 million years ago.
Blind since birth, Julee-anne Bell wasn't comfortable heading out on her own. And when she learned an echolocation technique that gave her more independence, she discovered that it came with costs.
In tight times, cuts urged for ocean observing network and ships
By making E. coli dependent on an artificial amino acid, scientists hope to show that engineered organisms can be safer and more useful for industrial processes like drug production.
The frilled shark's roots are traced to 80 million years ago. Its prehistoric origins are obvious in its primitive body; nearly all of the rare animal's closest relatives are long extinct.