The ability to detect rotten food is so crucial for survival that even flies have a dedicated neural circuit to do just that, according to a study published on December 6th in the Cell Press journal Cell. The brain circuit allows flies to avoid feeding and laying eggs on fruit covered in toxic molds and bacteria and represents a unique, specialized system for detecting a repulsive odor.
"When this compound is present in the air, even the most attractive food source becomes unattractive," says senior study author Bill Hansson of the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology. "This is highly interesting, as it's seldom that single compounds have a direct behavioral effect and that they are active at extremely low concentrations as we observe here."
The vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) feeds on yeast that grows on fermenting fruit, and the olfactory pathways that underlie the insect's attraction toward the smell of vinegar have been well characterized. But relatively little is known about circuits that mediate avoidance of foul odors. One potential candidate for a dedicated avoidance circuit was recently discovered by Hansson and his collaborators, who found that the chemical geosmin, which is produced by harmful fungi and bacteria, is strongly repulsive to flies.
"It is obviously highly important for all organisms to stay away from spoiled food," says lead study author Marcus Stensmyr of the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology. "Detecting and avoiding food infested by bad microbes seems to be a ubiquitous phenomenon, where the nervous system has evolved to extreme degrees to make it work."
Cell Press: http://www.cellpress.com
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Algorithms developed by Google designed to encode thoughts, could lead to computers with ‘common sense’ within a decade, says leading AI scientist
New fossil evidence suggests dogs emerged as a separate species from wolves far earlier than scientists previously believed
Researchers discover the 425-million-year-old remains of a new species of parasite - still clamped to the host animal it invaded.
It should be raptor egg blue instead of robin egg blue. Some modern birds lay colourful eggs, but now we know it's a trick their dinosaur ancestors used too
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Scientists on Thursday unveiled the most comprehensive analysis ever undertaken of the world's ocean plankton, the tiny organisms that serve as food for marine creatures such as the blue whale, but also provide half the oxygen we breathe.
Scientists on Thursday unveiled the most comprehensive analysis ever undertaken of the world's ocean plankton, the tiny organisms that serve as food for marine creatures such as the blue whale, but also provide half the oxygen we breathe.
Researchers say they're excited about a new brain implant that allowed a paralyzed patient to control a robotic arm with his mind. Erik Sorto is the first in the world to have this new neural prosthetic device. Elaine Quijano reports.
Genetically, at least, not that much has changed in the billion years since you two last shared a relative. Roughly half the 500 genes yeast need for life are interchangeable with the human versions.
What controls aging? Biochemist Cynthia Kenyon has found a genetic mutation that can more than double the lifespan of a tiny worm, which points to how we might one day significantly extend human life.
Java sparrows amp up their tunes with acoustic beak taps synchronized with chirps