Scientists at the University of Liverpool have found that male mice produce a pheromone that provokes females and competitor males to remember a preference for the place where the pheromone was previously encountered.
Some animals, such as moths, use a sensitive tracking system to trace airborne sex pheromones to the source, while others, such as snakes, follow trails of pheromones left on the ground. A team from the University's Institute of Integrative Biology has discovered that mice use a different system to locate mates and competitors by remembering exactly where they have encountered a male sex pheromone called darcin.
Darcin is a small protein in the urine scent marks of male mice. Although not detected from a distance, females that explore scent-marked areas are instinctively attracted to spend time near this pheromone when they come into contact with it.
The research, published in the journal, Science, shows that the pheromone stimulates very rapid learning of spatial cues associated with its location, so that females remember a preference for this location when they return to the area.
Males use the same mechanism to remember the location of rival male scents, making contact with darcin when they detect a male's scent that is not their own. The ability to remember and rapidly relocate sites scent marked by other males will help them to drive off rivals and to counter-mark with their own scent.
Dr Sarah Roberts, from the University's Institute of Integrative Biology, said: "We have shown that a male sex pheromone in mice makes females and competitor males remember exactly where they encountered the pheromone and show a preference for this site for up to two weeks afterwards. Given the opportunity, they will find that same place again, even if they encountered the scent only once and the scent is no longer there."
Professor Jane Hurst, who leads the University's Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, explains: "This attraction to the place they remember is just as strong as attraction to the scent itself. Darcin, therefore, induces mice to learn a spatial map of the location of attractive males and their scents, to which they can easily return. This avoids the difficulty of having to detect specific scents from a distance and trace them to their source.
"Pheromones are used for sexual attraction and for advertising an animal's location in many species, particularly among mammals. It will be interesting to discover whether such highly potent associative learning is induced by pheromones in other species and to understand the brain mechanisms involved."
University of Liverpool: http://www.liv.ac.uk
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Algorithms developed by Google designed to encode thoughts, could lead to computers with ‘common sense’ within a decade, says leading AI scientist
New fossil evidence suggests dogs emerged as a separate species from wolves far earlier than scientists previously believed
Researchers discover the 425-million-year-old remains of a new species of parasite - still clamped to the host animal it invaded.
It should be raptor egg blue instead of robin egg blue. Some modern birds lay colourful eggs, but now we know it's a trick their dinosaur ancestors used too
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Scientists on Thursday unveiled the most comprehensive analysis ever undertaken of the world's ocean plankton, the tiny organisms that serve as food for marine creatures such as the blue whale, but also provide half the oxygen we breathe.
Scientists on Thursday unveiled the most comprehensive analysis ever undertaken of the world's ocean plankton, the tiny organisms that serve as food for marine creatures such as the blue whale, but also provide half the oxygen we breathe.
Researchers say they're excited about a new brain implant that allowed a paralyzed patient to control a robotic arm with his mind. Erik Sorto is the first in the world to have this new neural prosthetic device. Elaine Quijano reports.
Genetically, at least, not that much has changed in the billion years since you two last shared a relative. Roughly half the 500 genes yeast need for life are interchangeable with the human versions.
What controls aging? Biochemist Cynthia Kenyon has found a genetic mutation that can more than double the lifespan of a tiny worm, which points to how we might one day significantly extend human life.
Java sparrows amp up their tunes with acoustic beak taps synchronized with chirps