A recently described master regulator protein may explain the development of aberrant cell growth in the pancreas spurred by inflammation
A team from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania profiled gene expression of mouse pancreatic ductal and duct-like cells from different states - embryonic development, acute pancreatitis and K-ras mutation-driven carcinogenesis - to find the molecular regulation of these processes.
Broadly speaking, two cellular compartments are important in a normal pancreas, endocrine cells, which produce hormones including insulin, and exocrine cells – acinar and ductal -- which make and secrete digestive enzymes.
A cover article from the lab of Anil Rustgi, MD, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, published early online in Genes and Development, details the molecular changes of exocrine cells during inflammation, so-called acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a prelude to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
They used cell lineage tracing to follow what happens to the regulator protein called Prrx1 as cells change characteristics. Another protein, Sox9, which is downstream of Prrx1 in the cell signal pathway, is also important in understanding how pancreatic cancer forms, as the group has established the first link of Prrx1 to Sox9. The findings suggest that Prrx1 and Sox9 influence the emergence of an intermediate cell type that can give rise to cancer.
Inflammation is Key Culprit
Inflammation of the pancreas, or pancreatitis, is a leading reason for hospital admission, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for cancer of the pancreas. Each year, about 210,000 people in the United States are admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis.
Acute pancreatitis is caused by alcohol abuse, gallstones, and autoimmune disorders. When things go wrong, inflammatory pancreatitis happens, and the change from an acute state to a chronic state can lead to cancer.
When a patient recovers from pancreatitis, the change in cell fate reverts to the original cell type. But, if the pancreatitis is chronic, changed cells stay changed.
"We hope that studies like this one that identify key molecules and pathways that govern the cancerous fate of cells can be used as diagnostic predictors of treatment outcome and severity for cancer," says Rustgi.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
I read about a researcher in China named Rongxiang Xu who's working on stem cell treatments that can be administered so stem cell cultivation could be handled entirely in situ. It sounds like these could be complementary technologies. Has Labspaces covered Xu before?
About once a year, Florida harvester ants dig new nests, a mystery entomologists are eager to get to the bottom of.
The finding that male homosexuality has a strong genetic component should be a boon for gay rights – but it could backfire
Alan Turing, the man who pioneered computing, also forced the world to question what it means to be human
During sleep, the brain locks in existing memories and can even form new ones. Scientists say they are starting to understand how that happens. A midnight snack may interfere.
They walk among us. Natural experiments, living ordinary lives, unaware that their genes may hold the clue to the next superdrug.
A crowd at the Santa Barbara Zoo got a pleasant surprise when its latest star attraction, a baby giraffe, came out for a jaunt
A massive white matter tract at the back of the brain, overlooked for the past century, might be crucial for skills such as reading.
An award-winning book on optical illusions explains the science of tricking your brain.
Scientists investigating a huge die-off of starfish along North America's Pacific coast have identified a virus they say is responsible for a calamitous wasting disease that has wiped out millions of the creatures since it first appeared last year.
After 43,000 years in the Siberian permafrost, the remains of a mammoth may contain enough DNA to recreate the beast's genome