A recently described master regulator protein may explain the development of aberrant cell growth in the pancreas spurred by inflammation
A team from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania profiled gene expression of mouse pancreatic ductal and duct-like cells from different states - embryonic development, acute pancreatitis and K-ras mutation-driven carcinogenesis - to find the molecular regulation of these processes.
Broadly speaking, two cellular compartments are important in a normal pancreas, endocrine cells, which produce hormones including insulin, and exocrine cells – acinar and ductal -- which make and secrete digestive enzymes.
A cover article from the lab of Anil Rustgi, MD, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, published early online in Genes and Development, details the molecular changes of exocrine cells during inflammation, so-called acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a prelude to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
They used cell lineage tracing to follow what happens to the regulator protein called Prrx1 as cells change characteristics. Another protein, Sox9, which is downstream of Prrx1 in the cell signal pathway, is also important in understanding how pancreatic cancer forms, as the group has established the first link of Prrx1 to Sox9. The findings suggest that Prrx1 and Sox9 influence the emergence of an intermediate cell type that can give rise to cancer.
Inflammation is Key Culprit
Inflammation of the pancreas, or pancreatitis, is a leading reason for hospital admission, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for cancer of the pancreas. Each year, about 210,000 people in the United States are admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis.
Acute pancreatitis is caused by alcohol abuse, gallstones, and autoimmune disorders. When things go wrong, inflammatory pancreatitis happens, and the change from an acute state to a chronic state can lead to cancer.
When a patient recovers from pancreatitis, the change in cell fate reverts to the original cell type. But, if the pancreatitis is chronic, changed cells stay changed.
"We hope that studies like this one that identify key molecules and pathways that govern the cancerous fate of cells can be used as diagnostic predictors of treatment outcome and severity for cancer," says Rustgi.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
I read about a researcher in China named Rongxiang Xu who's working on stem cell treatments that can be administered so stem cell cultivation could be handled entirely in situ. It sounds like these could be complementary technologies. Has Labspaces covered Xu before?
South Africa has begun testing a humane way to make its beaches safer
There used to be rhinos in North America. In fact, they originated on the continent. The earliest ones …
James Watson is to sell the Nobel Prize medal he won for the discovery of the structure of DNA.
An international team of more than 100 researchers has mapped the genome of the centipede and found that, while it easily outpaces humans on number of legs, it falls short when it comes to genes.
The tech giant has created a utensil to make mealtime easier for people with Parkinson's disease and essential tremors
The brain has a weak spot for Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, according to experts who have pinpointed the region using scans.
Scientists in California have captured the elusive anglerfish on film in its natural habitat, 1,900 feet below sea level
Researchers were shocked to discover multiple instances of seal-on-penguin rape
The tiny shrimp survive without sunlight and crawl within an inch of boiling hot waters
Birds are one of the most widely studied forms of life on the planet. And, there are still new species out there to discover — as one young researcher found recently in a forest in Indonesia.