Two American physicists outline the role played by Austrian physicist Friedrich Hasenöhrl in establishing the proportionality between the energy (E) of a quantity of matter with its mass (m) in a cavity filled with radiation. In a paper about to be published in EPJ H, Stephen Boughn from Haverford College in Pensylvannia and Tony Rothman from Princeton University in New Jersey argue how Hasenöhrl's work, for which he now receives little credit, may have contributed to the famous equation E=mc2.
According to science philosopher Thomas Kuhn, the nature of scientific progress occurs through paradigm shifts, which depend on the cultural and historical circumstances of groups of scientists. Concurring with this idea, the authors believe the notion that mass and energy should be related did not originate solely with Hasenöhrl. Nor did it suddenly emerge in 1905, when Einstein published his paper, as popular mythology would have it.
Given the lack of recognition for Hasenöhrl's contribution, the authors examined the Austrian physicist's original work on blackbody radiation in a cavity with perfectly reflective walls. This study seeks to identify the blackbody's mass changes when the cavity is moving relative to the observer.
They then explored the reason why the Austrian physicist arrived at an energy/mass correlation with the wrong factor, namely at the equation: E = (3/8) mc2. Hasenöhrl's error, they believe, stems from failing to account for the mass lost by the blackbody while radiating.
Before Hasenöhrl focused on cavity radiation, other physicists, including French mathematician Henri Poincaré and German physicist Max Abraham, showed the existence of an inertial mass associated with electromagnetic energy. In 1905, Einstein gave the correct relationship between inertial mass and electromagnetic energy, E=mc2. Nevertheless, it was not until 1911 that German physicist Max von Laue generalised it to include all forms of energy.
Boughn S., Rothman T. (2013), Hasenöhrl and the Equivalence of Mass and Energy, European Physical Journal H, DOI 10.1140/epjh/e2012-30061-5
For more information, please visit www.epj.org.
This press release was posted to serve as a topic for discussion. Please comment below. We try our best to only post press releases that are associated with peer reviewed scientific literature. Critical discussions of the research are appreciated. If you need help finding a link to the original article, please contact us on twitter or via e-mail.
Oklahoma is experiencing more earthquakes, and some scientists say they're caused by wastewater disposal wells. Linda Wertheimer learns more from energy reporter Joe Wertz of StateImpact Oklahoma.
Scientists have separated a particle from one of its physical properties - proving a theory known as the "quantum Cheshire Cat".
A new material, combined with a cheap tracking system, could unleash the promise of concentrated solar power.A material with optical properties that change to help it capture more incoming sunlight could cut the cost of solar power in half, according to Glint Photonics, a startup recently funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E).
So much of the food we eat these days is encased in plastic. And behind it is a whole lot of research and innovation. We dive into some of the materials that keep food fresh and portable.
Researchers at MIT have created a ball with a customizable surface texture through the science of wrinkling.
A new way of turning vegetable waste directly into bioplastics could make such materials even more environmentally friendly
A 2-billion-year-old rock has revealed the first evidence of the isolated pockets where oxygen-breathing life may have evolved
A series of explosions set off by a team of scientists were expected to rattle Washington state's Mount St. Helens on Wednesday as researchers map the interior of the volcano, whose 1980 eruption was the deadliest in U.S. history.
Researchers say the right mix of erosion and stress creates Earth’s natural sandstone arches and columns
Michael Slezak goes deep under the outback to find a home for the southern hemisphere's first WIMP detector, which could confirm our best direct signal yet